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A group of European researchers publish the discovery of a gene that is likely to have contributed to the physical expansion of the human neocortex — a key event in primate evolution. Known as ARHGAP11B, the gene is found in modern humans, Neanderthals, and Denisovans, but is not present in mice. It drives the proliferation of neural progenitor cells that build the brain's neocortex, which is involved in sensory perception, motor commands, conscious thought, and language.

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