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Machine Learning Improves Diagnostic Accuracy of Breast Cancer MRI, Study Shows

Machine learning can be used to improve the diagnostic accuracy of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) for breast cancer, according to a study in this week's Science Translational Medicine. While DCE-MRI has a high sensitivity for detecting breast cancer, it often leads to unnecessary biopsies, particularly in women with intermediate or average risk for the disease. To help improve the overall accuracy of DCE-MRI, New York University researchers developed a deep learning system to predict the probability of  breast cancer in patients undergoing DCE-MRI and showed that it achieves diagnostic accuracy equivalent to breast imaging experts for predicting the probability of the breast cancer presence. The team also showed that combining the system's predictions with radiologist decisions further improved classification accuracy. The work, the scientists write, "creates a foundation for deployment and prospective analysis of DL-based models for breast MRI."

The Scan

Positive Framing of Genetic Studies Can Spark Mistrust Among Underrepresented Groups

Researchers in Human Genetics and Genomics Advances report that how researchers describe genomic studies may alienate potential participants.

Small Study of Gene Editing to Treat Sickle Cell Disease

In a Novartis-sponsored study in the New England Journal of Medicine, researchers found that a CRISPR-Cas9-based treatment targeting promoters of genes encoding fetal hemoglobin could reduce disease symptoms.

Gut Microbiome Changes Appear in Infants Before They Develop Eczema, Study Finds

Researchers report in mSystems that infants experienced an enrichment in Clostridium sensu stricto 1 and Finegoldia and a depletion of Bacteroides before developing eczema.

Acute Myeloid Leukemia Treatment Specificity Enhanced With Stem Cell Editing

A study in Nature suggests epitope editing in donor stem cells prior to bone marrow transplants can stave off toxicity when targeting acute myeloid leukemia with immunotherapy.