Researchers at Université de Montréal have performed a genome-wide in vivo screen for protein-protein interactions in S. cerevisiae using a protein-fragment complementation assay, or PCA. They found 2,770 interactions among 1,124 endogenously expressed proteins, at a resolution of eight nanometers.
It's been 25 years since HIV was reported to cause AIDS, and people still die daily from the disease. An editorial urges scientists that creating a vaccine is an achievable goal. A policy forum looks at investments in AIDS prevention, a perspective checks into the failure of STEP trial last November, and a critical review looks at the progress that's been made — mostly what's not been done — in finding a vaccine. "Nearly a billion dollars is spent globally on HIV/AIDS research annually, and yet the sobering reality is that at present there are no promising candidates for an HIV vaccine," they write. Discussed are the obstacles to this process, including the extreme genetic variability and high mutation rate of HIV.
Researchers at San Francisco-based Five Prime Therapeutics have used systematic functional screens to identify a new cytokine and its membrane receptor. After producing a comprehensive set of recombinant secreted proteins and testing them in vitro, they identified interleukin 34 (IL-34) as a novel cytokine. Another screen of about 1,600 transmembrane proteins found that IL-34 binds to the colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) receptor.