This Week in PNAS

In an early, online Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences paper, a team from the UK and Spain describes transcriptional, translational, and post-translational modifications contributing to snake venom variability. By bringing together information on snake venom proteomes, snake genomes, and transcriptomes for six poisonous snake species, the researchers found that gene sequences alone are not the only venom composition determinants.

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The US Food and Drug Administration has new guidelines that enable some gene and cell therapies to undergo expedited review, according to the New York Times.

Using gene drives to control invasive species might be too risky, an initial advocate of the approach says.

In Science this week: intellectual property experts argue patent battles such as the one over CRISPR are wasteful, and more.

Researchers have grown tumors in 3D cell cultures to better understand cancer, the Economist reports.