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This Week in Nucleic Acids Research: May 26, 2010

In Nucleic Acids Research this week, researchers in Paris evaluate splicing factor and exon expression profiles across 11 normal human tissues using microarray data. After validating with RT-PCR, the team found that "the cerebellum, testis, and spleen had the largest proportion of differentially expressed alternative exons," they write, although they found that the splicing factor expression profiles in these tissues were similar to a more global gene expression pattern. "This study demonstrates that the higher prevalence of alternative splicing in a subset of tissues originates from the larger number of genes, including splicing factors, being expressed than in other tissues," the authors conclude.

Investigators in France and Germany report that "oxidative stress triggers the preferential assembly of base excision repair complexes on open chromatin regions." The team shows that "after induction of oxidative DNA damage, the DNA glycosylase is actively recruited to regions of open chromatin allowing the access of the BER machinery to the lesions, suggesting preferential repair of active chromosome regions."

Tel Aviv School of Medicine investigators and their colleagues evaluate translation efficiency in humans in a paper published this week by performing a tissue-specific analysis and using the tRNA Adaptation Index for measurement. In their study, the team found that the "tAI correlates with several measures related to the protein functionally importance, including gene essentiality." The authors conclude that their results show the function of codon bias in translation efficiency in humans.

A study led by a team at Korea University in Seoul reveals that temperature-responsive miRNAs regulate flowering-time regulation in Arabidopsis. Using miRNA microarray and northern hybridization methods, the team determined the expression profiles for 120 unique miRNA loci in response to ambient temperature changes. The authors write that their results suggest the genetic basis for flowering-time regulation under non-stress temperature conditions.

The Scan

Study Finds Few FDA Post-Market Regulatory Actions Backed by Research, Public Assessments

A Yale University-led team examines in The BMJ safety signals from the US FDA Adverse Event Reporting System and whether they led to regulatory action.

Duke University Team Develops Programmable RNA Tool for Cell Editing

Researchers have developed an RNA-based editing tool that can target specific cells, as they describe in Nature.

Novel Gene Editing Approach for Treating Cystic Fibrosis

Researchers in Science Advances report on their development of a non-nuclease-based gene editing approach they hope to apply to treat cystic fibrosis.

Study Tracks Responses in Patients Pursuing Polygenic Risk Score Profiling

Using interviews, researchers in the European Journal of Human Genetics qualitatively assess individuals' motivations for, and experiences with, direct-to-consumer polygenic risk score testing.