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Philip Lawley Dies

Philip Lawley, who was a chemist at the Chester Beatty Research Institute in the UK, has died, reports Nature. Lawley studied how mutagens and carcinogens bind to and affect DNA, and was among the first to link DNA damage to cancer. Lawley and Peter Brookes, his colleague at Chester Beatty, which is now the Institute of Cancer Research, reported that mustard gas forms adducts with guanine in DNA, and those adducts then affect DNA replication and cell division. Further, they found that how frequently polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons bind to DNA increases their carcinogenic strength. "This discovery overturned the prevailing view that proteins were the critical cellular targets for carcinogens and it changed the course of cancer research," Nature says.

The Scan

Tens of Millions Saved

The Associated Press writes that vaccines against COVID-19 saved an estimated 20 million lives in their first year.

Supersized Bacterium

NPR reports that researchers have found and characterized a bacterium that is visible to the naked eye.

Also Subvariants

Moderna says its bivalent SARS-CoV-2 vaccine leads to a strong immune response against Omicron subvariants, the Wall Street Journal reports.

Science Papers Present Gene-Edited Mouse Models of Liver Cancer, Hürthle Cell Carcinoma Analysis

In Science this week: a collection of mouse models of primary liver cancer, and more.