The Bayh-Dole Act, enacted in 1980, gives NIH certain "march-in" rights to compel drug patent-holders to grant licenses to other manufacturers under certain circumstances. Recently, three Fabry disease patients have been petitioning NIH to exercise its Bayh-Dole march-in rights to demand that Genzyme allow other firms to make Fabrazyme — currently the only effective treatment for the disease — after contamination problems interrupted production at Genzyme's only manufacturing facility in 2009, which caused a shortage of the drug.

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