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All the Assorted Proteins

Human testicles produce nearly a thousand unique proteins — more than the brain's 318 unique proteins, according to the latest version of the Human Protein Atlas.

"What's going on in the testes is unique, as sperm must survive with half the chromosomes and outside the human body," Mathias Uhlén from the Swedish Royal Institute of Technology tells the New Scientist. Uhlén led the decade-long effort to examine the proteins produced in various tissues of the human body.

Starting in 2005, he and his colleagues began to analyze tissues from 360 healthy people. As the Economist reports, the researchers developed antibodies to some 17,000 proteins and then applied these antibodies, bound to staining molecules, to thin tissue slices to see which proteins were present there. The project's new webpage may be found here.

"The result will be of great value to researchers trying to understand how tissues differ at the molecular level," the Economist says. "Most biological functions depend on proteins, so it is the mix of proteins within a cell which defines what that cell is."

Although Uhlén and his team identified 3,500 human genes that encode proteins that are only found in one or two tissues, their atlas is not yet complete as there are some 20,000 protein-coding genes in the human genome, the Economist adds.

The Scan

ChatGPT Does As Well As Humans Answering Genetics Questions, Study Finds

Researchers in the European Journal of Human Genetics had ChatGPT answer genetics-related questions, finding it was about 68 percent accurate, but sometimes gave different answers to the same question.

Sequencing Analysis Examines Gene Regulatory Networks of Honeybee Soldier, Forager Brains

Researchers in Nature Ecology & Evolution find gene regulatory network differences between soldiers and foragers, suggesting bees can take on either role.

Analysis of Ashkenazi Jewish Cohort Uncovers New Genetic Loci Linked to Alzheimer's Disease

The study in Alzheimer's & Dementia highlighted known genes, but also novel ones with biological ties to Alzheimer's disease.

Tara Pacific Expedition Project Team Finds High Diversity Within Coral Reef Microbiome

In papers appearing in Nature Communications and elsewhere, the team reports on findings from the two-year excursion examining coral reefs.