Northwestern University of Evanston, Ill., has received US Patent No. 7,951,334, "Direct write nanolithographic deposition of nucleic acids from nanoscopic tips." The patent describes the use of direct-write nanolithography to generate anchored, nanoscale patterns of nucleic acid on different substrates. Modification of nucleic acid, including oligonucleotides, with reactive groups such as thiol groups provides for patterning with use of scanning probe microscopic tips. The reactive groups provide for chemisorption or covalent bonding to the substrate surface.