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This Week in Lancet Oncology: May 4, 2011


In Lancet Oncology this week, researchers in Australia present findings from a 10-year randomized trial of short-term neoadjuvant androgen deprivation and radiotherapy for patients with locally advanced prostate cancer. The researchers assigned 818 men to randomly receive radiotherapy alone, three months of neoadjuvant androgen deprivation plus radiotherapy for three months, or six months of neoadjuvant androgen deprivation plus radiotherapy. They found that three months of the neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy decreased the incidence of prostate cancer progression, compared with radiotherapy alone, and that six months of the therapy further reduced cancer progression and led to greater improvement in event-free survival. In addition, while the three-month therapy had no effect on mortality compared with radiotherapy alone, the six-month neoadjuvant therapy decreased mortality.

Also in Lancet Oncology this week, a team of international researchers present findings from a trial of subcutaneous versus intravenous administration of bortezomib in patients with relapsed multiple myeloma. They found that there was no significant difference in time to progression or one-year survival between the subcutaneous group and the intravenous group after about 12 months of follow-up. However, the authors write, peripheral neuropathy was significantly less common with subcutaneous than with intravenous administration and subcutaneous administration was locally well tolerated.

And finally in Lancet Oncology this week, a team led by researchers in the Netherlands present findings from a study of the risk of recurrent high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia after successful treatment. Of the 435 women studied, 17 percent of them developed post-treatment neoplasia. The five-year risk of developing the post-treatment neoplasia grade two or higher was 16.5 percent in the study group and the 10-year risk was 18.3 percent, the authors write. "The five-year risk of post-treatment CIN grade 2 or higher in women with three consecutive negative cytological smears or negative co-testing for cytology and hrHPV at six and 24 months was similar to that of women with normal cytology in population-based screening and therefore justifies their return to regular screening," the researchers add.

The Scan

Single-Cell Sequencing Points to Embryo Mosaicism

Mosaicism may affect preimplantation genetic tests for aneuploidy, a single-cell sequencing-based analysis of almost three dozen embryos in PLOS Genetics finds.

Rett Syndrome Mouse Model Study Points to RNA Editing Possibilities

Investigators targeted MECP2 in mutant mouse models of Rett syndrome, showing in PNAS that they could restore its expression and dial down symptoms.

Investigators Find Shared, Distinct Genetic Contributors to Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma

An association study in JAMA Network Open uncovers risk variants within and beyond the human leukocyte antigen locus.

Transcriptomic, Epigenetic Study Appears to Explain Anti-Viral Effects of TB Vaccine

Researchers report in Science Advances on an interferon signature and long-term shifts in monocyte cell DNA methylation in Bacille Calmette-Guérin-vaccinated infant samples.