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This Week in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute: Jun 14, 2012

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In the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, researchers in the US and The Netherlands report the results of a study on the effects of diesel exhaust fumes on lung cancer risk. The team conducted a nested case-control study in a cohort of 12,315 miners, adjusting for cigarette smoking and other potential confounding factors. They found a statistically significant increase in lung cancer risk with increasing cumulative respirable elemental carbon exposure and average respirable elemental carbon intensity. "Cumulative REC, lagged 15 years, yielded a statistically significant positive gradient in lung cancer risk overall," the researchers write. "Among heavily exposed workers, risk was approximately three times greater than that among workers in the lowest quartile of exposure. … Our findings provide further evidence that diesel exhaust exposure may cause lung cancer in humans and may represent a potential public health burden."

Also in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, researchers in the US and Sweden report on perinatal and family risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma in early life. The team conducted a national cohort study of more than 3.5 million individuals born in Sweden between 1973 and 2008, who were followed for incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma through 2009. They found that independent risk factors for the disease include family history of non-Hodgkin lymphoma — in either a sibling or parent — high fetal growth, older maternal age, low birth order, and being male. "Male sex was associated with onset of NHL before 15 years of age but not with later-onset NHL, whereas the other risk factors did not vary by age at diagnosis," the authors write. "No association was found between gestational age at birth, twinning, paternal age, or parental education and NHL."