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This Week in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute: May 31, 2012

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In the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, researchers in Japan report on the effect of ADAM28 on carcinoma cell metastasis. Using a yeast two-hybrid system, the researchers screened the human lung cDNA library for ADAM28-binding proteins and uncovered von Willebrand factor as a potential target of ADAM28. They examined exogenous VWF-induced apoptosis and ADAM28 expression in several human cancer cell lines, including lung, breast, renal cell, and liver as well as in mouse models. They found that ADAM28 could bind to and cleave native VWF, and that cells with low ADAM28 expression were susceptible to VWF-induced apoptosis, while cells with high ADAM28 expression were resistant. "Knockdown of ADAM28 expression in PC-9 and MDA-MB231 [lung cancer] cells by shRNA showed increased carcinoma cell apoptosis mainly in lung blood vessels and statistically significantly decreased lung metastasis at week 3 after injection," the team writes. "Similar inhibition of lung metastasis was observed with ADAM28-siRNA and anti-ADAM28 antibody." This shows that ADAM28 cleaves pro-apoptotic VWF, and enhances lung metastasis.

Also in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, researchers in the US and Europe report on the role of tripartite motif family protein 27 in the development of cancer. Using cancer profiling arrays containing paired tumor and normal cRNA and murine models of skin cancer, the team studied TRIM27 expression and found that levels of TRIM27 transcripts are statistically significantly increased in common human cancers like colon and lung, compared to normal tissues. Additionally, mice with disrupted expression of murine TRIM27 were resistant to chemically induced skin cancer, compared to their wildtype littermates, the team says. "TRIM27 expression is a modifier of disease incidence and progression relevant to the development of common human cancers and is a potential target for intervention in cancer," the authors write.

The Scan

Interfering With Invasive Mussels

The Chicago Tribune reports that researchers are studying whether RNA interference- or CRISPR-based approaches can combat invasive freshwater mussels.

Participation Analysis

A new study finds that women tend to participate less at scientific meetings but that some changes can lead to increased involvement, the Guardian reports.

Right Whales' Decline

A research study plans to use genetic analysis to gain insight into population decline among North American right whales, according to CBC.

Science Papers Tie Rare Mutations to Short Stature, Immunodeficiency; Present Single-Cell Transcriptomics Map

In Science this week: pair of mutations in one gene uncovered in brothers with short stature and immunodeficiency, and more.