In JAMA this week, researchers from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial Project present a study on chest radiograph screening for lung cancer and the effect of screening on disease-related mortality. The team split 154,901 participants into two groups, one of which received annual screenings and the other of which received usual care. They found that after 13 years of follow up, cumulative lung cancer incidence rates were 20.1 per 10,000 person-years in the intervention group and 19.2 per 10,000 person-years in the usual-care group. "Annual screening with chest radiograph did not reduce lung cancer mortality compared with usual care," the authors write.
Also in JAMA this week, researchers in the Netherlands write that screening for lung cancer could also help to catch early cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Within an ongoing lung cancer screening trial, the team obtained prebronchodilator pulmonary function testing and expiratory CT data from 1,140 male patients. About 38 percent of these participants were found to have COPD according to the lung function testing, the team says. "Among men who are current and former heavy smokers, low-dose inspiratory and expiratory CT scans obtained for lung cancer screening can identify participants with COPD, with a sensitivity of 63 percent and a specificity of 88 percent," the researchers add.