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This Week in JAMA: Jul 20, 2011

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In JAMA this week, a team of researchers in Italy presents findings from a study of the effects of triptorelin — a gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog — on the occurrence of chemotherapy-induced early menopause in women with breast cancer. To determine if triptorelin's temporary ovarian suppression effect changed the rate of early menopause during chemotherapy, the team studied 281 premenopausal breast cancer patients and randomly assigned them to receive either chemotherapy alone or with triptorelin. The researchers found that the rate of early menopause in the chemotherapy group was 25.9 percent 12 months after chemotherapy was complete, compared to 8.9 percent in the triptorelin group.

Also in JAMA this week, the University of California, San Francisco's Hope Rugo and Mitchell Rosen write that about 35 percent of women newly diagnosed with breast cancer are 54 years or younger, and that 12 percent are younger than 45, making it important for clinicians to address younger patient's concerns about long-term effects of chemotherapy, like loss of fertility and early menopause. Current chemotherapy regimens generally have less ovarian toxicity, the authors write, but recovery of menses can be delayed for up to two years in some women. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists have been thought to protect against chemotherapy-induced "ovarian failure," they add, but the most effective option for preservation of fertility in young female cancer patients is still "assisted reproductive technology with embryo or oocyte cryopreservation." This option should be discussed with and offered to cancer patients before they undergo chemotherapy, Rugo and Rosen write.

The Scan

Two J&J Doses

Johnson & Johnson says two doses of its SARS-CoV-2 vaccine provides increased protection against symptomatic COVID-19, CNN reports.

Pfizer-BioNTech Vaccine Response in Kids

The Pfizer-BioNTech SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in a lower-dose format appears to generate an immune response among children, according to the Washington Post.

Chicken Changes to Prevent Disease

The Guardian writes that researchers are looking at gene editing chickens to help prevent future pandemics.

PNAS Papers on Siberian Dog Ancestry, Insect Reproduction, Hippocampal Neurogenesis

In PNAS this week: ancestry and admixture among Siberian dogs, hormone role in fruit fly reproduction, and more.