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This Week in Clinical Cancer Research: Jun 10, 2011

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This week in Clinical Cancer Research, a team led by researchers at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center present results from a study of published literature on prognostic immune markers in non-small-cell lung cancer. While a clear association has been shown between tumor immune response and clinical outcome in colorectal and ovarian cancers, the role of immune markers for stratifying prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer is unclear, the authors write. In reviewing the prognostic significance of published immune markers in the tumor microenvironment and peripheral blood of lung cancer patients, the team found there is enough data present to justify further studies into immune responses in non-small-cell lung cancer.

Also in Clinical Cancer Research this week, researchers across the US team up to study the myeloid biomarkers associated with glioblastoma response to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy with aflibercept. The researchers conducted a single-arm Phase II trial of aflibercept in glioblastoma patients, and found that circulating levels of VEGF significantly decreased 24 hours after treatment. "These data suggest that decreases in VEGF post-treatment are associated with radiographic response to aflibercept. Elevated baseline chemokines of monocyte lineage in responding patients supports a role for myeloid cells and chemokines as potential biomarkers and regulators of glioma angiogenesis," the authors write.

And finally in Clinical Cancer Research this week, researchers in Japan detail the clinical significance of miR-146a in gastric cancer patients. MiR-146a is reported to be a tumor suppressor in pancreatic, breast, and prostate cancers. The team examined levels of miR-146a in 90 gastric cancer samples, and found that cancer tissues had significantly lower levels of the microRNA than non-cancerous tissues. "Lower levels of miR-146a were associated with lymph node metastasis, and venous invasion," the authors write. "Moreover, a lower level of miR-146a was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival."

The Scan

Self-Reported Hearing Loss in Older Adults Begins Very Early in Life, Study Says

A JAMA Otolaryngology — Head & Neck Surgery study says polygenic risk scores associated with hearing loss in older adults is also associated with hearing decline in younger groups.

Genome-Wide Analysis Sheds Light on Genetics of ADHD

A genome-wide association study meta-analysis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder appearing in Nature Genetics links 76 genes to risk of having the disorder.

MicroRNA Cotargeting Linked to Lupus

A mouse-based study appearing in BMC Biology implicates two microRNAs with overlapping target sites in lupus.

Enzyme Involved in Lipid Metabolism Linked to Mutational Signatures

In Nature Genetics, a Wellcome Sanger Institute-led team found that APOBEC1 may contribute to the development of the SBS2 and SBS13 mutational signatures in the small intestine.