In Clinical Cancer Research this week, researchers in the UK investigate the presence of autoantibodies as immunobiomarkers for a panel of tumor-associated antigens in patients with small-cell lung cancer. Autoantibodies were detected for at least one of six antigens in 55 percent of all patients tested, the authors write, showing that the presence of an autoantibody for one or more cancer-associated antigen could aid doctors in early detection of small-cell lung cancer in high-risk individuals.
Also in Clinical Cancer Research this week, researchers in New York and Maryland team up to study the expression and regulation of the non-histone nuclear binding protein HMGA1 in advanced prostate cancer. The team says that microRNA miR-296 specifically represses the expression of HMGA1 by promoting its degradation and inhibiting its translation. Examining prostate cancer patients, the researchers add, "we found an inverse correlation between HMGA1 and miR-296 expression: high levels of HMGA1 were associated with low miR-296 expression and strongly linked to more advanced tumor grade and stage."
A research team in the UK says that the hypermethylation of CpG islands and shores around specific microRNAs and mirtrons is associated with the phenotype and presence of bladder cancer. The team identified four mirtrons and 16 microRNAs with CpG hypermethylation across 35 regions in both normal and malignant urinary tract tissue. "For several microRNAs, hypermethylation was more frequent and dense in CpG shores than islands," the authors write, "and was associated with tumor grade, stage, and prognosis. Aberrant hypermethylation of small RNAs is associated with the presence of bladder cancer, and might be of potential use as a diagnostic and prognostic biomarker, the researchers conclude.
And finally in Clinical Cancer Research this week, researchers in the UK and China examine the prognostic value of A20, ABIN-1, ABIN-2, and CARD11 mutations in gastrointestinal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Recurrent somatic mutations were found in CARD11, A20, ABIN-1, and ABIN-2 in gastrointestinal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients, mutations which the researchers believe impair the genes' normal functions. Among these mutations, changes in A20 were significantly associated with poor overall survival and event-free survival. "We show further evidence of NF-κB pathway genetic abnormalities in DLBCL, which are potentially valuable in the prognosis and design of future therapeutic strategies," the authors write.