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In Reference

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Lateral Acquisition
Gophna U, Ofran Y. (2010). Lateral acquisition of genes is affected by the friendliness of their products. PNAS. Epub: doi 10.1073/pnas.1009775108.

The authors used computational methods to identify putative protein-protein interaction sites. They report that laterally acquired proteins contain substantially more "putative interaction sites than native proteins. Thus, genes encoding proteins with multiple protein-protein interactions may in fact be more prone to transfer than genes with fewer interactions." Their work indicates that these proteins have an increased likelihood of forming new interactions in new species, thus integrating into existing modules. The pair says that these results reveal basic principles for the incorporation of novel genes into existing systems.

Evolutionary Hourglass
Kalinka AT, Varga KM, Gerrard DT, et al. (2010). Gene expression divergence recapitulates the developmental hourglass model. Nature. 468: 811–814.

In this paper, researchers examine the extent to which gene expression evolution underpins the morphological "hourglass pattern" — a concept that proposes that embryogenesis diverges more extensively earlier and later than in the middle of the process. They used various Drosophila species and describe "fitting different evolutionary models to each gene" and "show that at each time point more than 80 percent of genes fit best to models incorporating stabilizing selection." Their study also suggests that natural selection conserves patterns of gene expression during mid-embryogenesis.

Fetal Profiling

Lo YMD, Chan KCA, Sun H, et al. (2010). Maternal plasma DNA sequencing reveals the genome-wide genetic and mutational profile of the fetus. Science Translational Medicine. Epub: doi 10.1126/scitranslmed.3001720.

The authors describe the genome-wide genetic map they used to identify the mutational status of a fetal human genome. It includes maternal plasma DNA sequences at up to 65-fold genomic coverage, and information about the paternal genotype and maternal haplotype. The authors show that "the entire fetal and maternal genomes were represented in maternal plasma at a constant relative proportion." Their findings suggest a possible method of diagnosing fetal genetic disorders through genome-wide scanning, and in a non-invasive manner.

Plasticity and Phenotype
Leder K, Holland EC, Michor F. (2010). The therapeutic implications of plasticity of the cancer stem cell phenotype. PLoS One. 5(12): e14366.

A team of researchers from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center report on a novel mathematical model they designed to investigate the plasticity of the cancer stem cell phenotype, a key to determining tumor prognosis. The team found "that higher levels of de-differentiation substantially reduce the effectiveness of therapy directed at cancer stem cells by leading to higher rates of resistance" and say that "plasticity of the cancer stem cell phenotype is an important determinant of the prognosis of tumors."

The Scan

More Boosters for US

Following US Food and Drug Administration authorization, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has endorsed booster doses of the Moderna and Johnson & Johnson SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, the Washington Post writes.

From a Pig

A genetically modified pig kidney was transplanted into a human without triggering an immune response, Reuters reports.

For Privacy's Sake

Wired reports that more US states are passing genetic privacy laws.

Science Paper on How Poaching Drove Evolution in African Elephants

In Science this week: poaching has led to the rapid evolution of tuskless African elephants.